Daily British Whig 1902-1926 now online

OurDigitalWorld is excited to announce that the Daily British Whig from 1902-1926 is online. The Frontenac Heritage Foundation undertook the project to digitize this significant set of community news, covering the first of the World Wars, and make the papers available as part of the larger Kingston newspaper collection hosted by the Kingston Frontenac Public Library.

With the addition of these almost 90,000 pages, the online Kingston newspaper collection has doubled and now ranges more than 100 years, from 1810-1926. The Digital Kingston VITA Toolkit site at http://vitacollections.ca/digital-kingston/search allows users to search by keyword and facet results to sort or narrow them by date, publication, and more.

Daily British Whig October 9, 1909

OurDigitalWorld worked with Library and Archives Canada via the Canadian Research Knowledge Network to access and digitize the microfilm copies, and with University of Windsor to achieve high quality positional OCR processing. The newspapers are uploaded into the VITA Digital Toolkit for search and display with full text search and hit highlighted results. Frontenac Heritage Foundation member John Grenville used the new primary materials to research a local architect Ernest Beckwith, designer of the Orpheum Theatre in Kingston, and returned very specific results.

ODW, Kingston Frontenac Public Library and the Frontenac Heritage Foundation encourage genealogists, students, and other researchers’ use and exploration of this important set of newspapers. To read the full press release and for contact information regarding the project, click here.

Featured Image courtesy of Maritime History of the Great Lakes Digital collection

Documentary Heritage Communities Program call for proposals now open

DHCP Banner
Funding Your Project Ideas:
The Documentary Heritage Communities Program

The call for project proposals for 2021-2022 grants is open until January 12, 2021.

The Documentary Heritage Communities Program from Library and Archives Canada distributes $1.5 million to cultural heritage organizations across Canada to preserve, document, and increase access to our cultural and community heritage.

Eligible organizations include Libraries, Historical Societies, Genealogical Societies and Organizations, Archives, Indigenous organizations/government institutions, Professional Library and Archives Associations, and other Organizations with an archival component.

Explore the website and program guidelines here.

OurDigitalWorld has worked with many organizations on their DHCP proposals and to provide solutions for projects of all sizes, including:

We can help with multimedia or newspaper collections, index card digitization, multilingual materials and displays, and more.

Email us about your project ideas or get a free estimate to include with your proposal.

“Can I Use This?”: Implementing Rights Statements in Online Cultural Heritage Collections

Hello! This is Adam Ianson. I’m a recent graduate of the University of Toronto’s iSchool and practicum student with OurDigitalWorld during which I was involved in providing recommendations for the implementation of standardized Rights Statements as part of VITA Digital Toolkit for their partner GLAM organizations’ collections.

Rights Statements are similar to Creative Commons licenses with one important difference. They are similar in that their purpose is to communicate clearly to users what they are permitted to do with the images, articles, and other digital content they find online. They are also both international standards that support the aims of the free-culture movement by enhancing the discoverability of public domain and free-license content online and by facilitating the reuse of those materials to generate new creative works.

The important difference to note is that Creative Commons licenses are legally binding and can only be applied to content by the rightsholder (or rightsholders) of that content. Rights Statements are often better suited to the needs of cultural heritage repositories such as ODW’s partners, which in most cases do not hold the rights to the content they make available online. 

Currently, ODW partners are prompted to select one of five rights statuses to display with each item they make available on their VITA collection: public domain, copyrighted, licensed, contractual, or unknown. Each status has a corresponding statement that appears as the public description. These statements are at least consistent, but when it comes to answering the question “can I use this item?” they can only inform the user that either there are ‘no restrictions on use’ or that the user must ‘ask for permission’ with little nuance in between. Also, users are not able to search for items in the collection according to their copyright status. Rights Statements offer improvements in both of these areas.

West Branch Bridge, Moira River, Tweed, Ontario. http://images.ourontario.ca/tweed/103610/data

To implement Rights Statements in VITA requires bridging the current copyright statement options to their more expressive equivalent (or equivalents) in the Rights Statements system. To better understand this task I found guidance in the British Columbia Electronic Library Network’s Arca and Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec (BAnQ), two Canadian cultural heritage repositories that have implemented Rights Statements in their collections. I also consulted a draft of the research paper produced by the National Heritage Digitization Strategy (NHDS) on the use of Rights Statements in the Canadian context. 

Based on my research, I determined that two of the twelve Rights Statements have low utility for ODW’s purposes. First, the In Copyright – EU Orphan Work statement, because it references legislation that applies exclusively to member states of the European Union. The other, No Copyright – Other Legal Restrictions statement, has limitations as well. This is used to restrict free use of the item because it has designated cultural expression protections; as well, applying the statement is inconclusive without further links to legal restrictions as supplied by the steward organization. Instead, the recommendation is to employ a more granular, descriptive standard that is sensitive to the community-specific protocols surrounding the access and use of these items, such as the Traditional Knowledge (TK) Labels system developed by Local Contexts, or the proposed Open Licensing Scheme for Traditional Knowledge jointly developed by Carleton University and the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic.

Furthermore, I learned that the current suite of Rights Statements may not be specific enough to the Canadian legal context. For example, works published by the Government of Canada or any of the provincial offices of the Queen’s Printer are protected by Crown copyright. The use restrictions on these works are comparable to, but by no means fully encapsulated by, the existing In Copyright – Non-commercial Use Permitted statement. Therefore, it may be desirable to create a “tailor-made” In Copyright – Crown Work Rights Statement for use in the Canadian GLAM context. Or it may make sense to instead advocate, alongside the Canadian Federation of Library Associations (CFLA) and Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL), to retroactively assign a Creative Commons CC-BY license to publicly available Canadian government publications.

In the course of my practicum I’ve certainly come to recognize the sheer number of decisions that need to be made in the process of implementing Rights Statements in online cultural heritage collections. I also appreciate the importance of consulting extensively with partner organizations, users, and the GLAM community at large before rolling out changes to a collection numbering in the millions of items!

Interested in hearing more? I’ll be presenting next week at the the Creative Commons Summiton Tuesday, October 20, 2020.

ODW Wikipedia Project Page

Thanks to practicum student Jamie Morin, we have a GLAM/ODW Wiki project page underway. The WikiProject will act as ODW’s central location on Wikipedia and was developed to build ODW’s authority as an author in the Wikisphere and provide an infrastructure to launch more projects and expand existing sections as needed.

For the launch, we have included one project: Ontario Community Newspapers. This project links in all articles about newspaper publications already created and published on Wikipedia by ODW staff and volunteers. The project invites volunteers to:

  • check and improve citations on already existing articles
  • connect orphan articles to related Wikipedia articles
  • edit existing Wikipedia articles
  • upload new Wikipedia articles

We invite our VITA partners and the wider community to participate in growing this project and building a strong web of information around Ontario Community Newspapers with links back to online digital newspaper collections.

Visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/OurDigitalWorld

Macrophotography from Microfilm

Since 2017, ODW has been exploring low-cost options for digitizing newspapers from microfilm. Inspired by DIY and makerspace memes popular in the library community,

ODW has worked on a prototype that can be assembled from readily-available components with a view towards providing a low-cost alternative for microfilm scanning. The approach centers around macrophotography, a technique that employs a special lens to zoom in at a level that allows intricate details of an object to be captured. Macrophotography has typically been used for capturing details of subjects in nature, like insects and flower petals, but it has broad application for anything at a reduced scale, including tiny photographs of newspaper pages.

At the 2018 OLA SuperConference, ODW Board Member and University of Windsor librarian, Art Rhyno, presented an overview of the first version of the prototype in a session entitled DIY Digitization of Community Newspapers. Part of the presentation included a video of the prototype (see below).

It is admittedly difficult to discern the components of the prototype in the video, but it illustrates 3 of the 4 building blocks to microfilm scanning listed in the 2018 presentation:

  1. Dealing with torque
  2. Configuring a stable camera arrangement
  3. Supplying appropriate lighting
  4. Finding flexible options for merging

Torque is a “twisting force to cause rotation”, and is needed to rotate microfilm reels in order for a camera to take pictures at different parts of the reel. Microfilm is surprisingly challenging for motors, and requires a fairly high level of torque to stand up to rotating reels for hours at a time. The best results were achieved with a rotisserie motor rated for 50 lbs, and one surprise with this setup was discovering that very few models of this type of motor had consistent turning directions, i.e., most randomly spin clockwise or counter-clockwise but not necessarily the same way twice.

The camera arrangement can be achieved with a tripod and possibly some creativity if the positioning of the camera over the light source is awkward (as you might guess from the video). A light table or a LED work light with a sheet of white plexiglass can provide the light source for illuminating the film. The results can be seen below, using an advertisement from the Nov. 20, 1874 edition of the Amherstburg Echo, there is no doubt that using a camera with a macro lens can be an effective strategy for capturing the level of detail necessary for microfilm.

Figure 1.

An original microfilm scan [Figure 1] from a decade ago. The film’s imperfections and the challenges of the illustration itself combine to make a problematic image.

Figure 2.

A recent scan [Figure 2] from a commercial provider. This scan has been post-processed to increase the contrast between the ink and the background page. This is certainly an improvement over the first image but is still difficult to read.

Figure 3.

The same page [Figure 3] with macrophotography. The image is much truer to its original form, though still challenging (for example, the lines in italic).

The original prototype used a standard DSLR Camera but the moving mirror in a DSLR eventually became problematic for microfilm since so many pictures were required to capture an entire reel and the parts would soon wear out. A mirrorless camera turned out to be a better option. Without moving parts, a mirrorless camera can take many more photos, an important consideration when a single reel can represent more than 1000 pages. The other key piece of camera equipment is a macro lens. Some microfilm may not require the level of magnification that a macro lens provides, but newspaper pages, in particular, need much stronger zoom support than a standard lens typically provides.

ODW, in partnership with the University of Windsor, has now scanned hundreds of newspaper reels. At the time of this writing, newspaper reels continue to be scanned, as can be seen below:

Note that this arrangement has two scanners controlled by one workstation. From the beginning, Ubuntu has been the backbone of the system controlling the scanning, relying on the remarkable ecosystem that linux has fostered. Many pages can be split into two or more images, depending on the way the page was photographed for the microfilm, and there has been no shortage of high quality image merging software to “stitch” the pages back together.

There have been some hard lessons to be learned along the way, however. Unlike the majority of computer equipment, camera equipment tends to fluctuate more wildly in pricing. The mirrorless camera purchased last year for $600 CAD, is now nearly 3 times that cost! At the same time, there is a newer mirrorless model that is about $400 CAD. It can be good to have a conversation with someone versed in camera equipment before assembling a scanning station.

The majority of historical newspapers will benefit from macrophotography, but some microfilm, particularly vesicular microfilm, will not benefit from the lighting system and may appear “washed out.” Badly scratched and/or dirty microfilm may, in turn, produce high resolution images of flaws in the film in addition to the pages themselves.

Perhaps the most difficult challenge of all is to try out alternative approaches. It is not easy to walk into a camera store with microfilm and a light source in order to sample different cameras and lenses. Phone cameras, which are improving at an incredibly rapid pace, are even more problematic for testing, since they tend to be tied to phone plans and reseller arrangements. In all these cases, there is usually a need to purchase equipment up front, and hope that it provides the desired results upon deployment.

ODW is currently investigating options for microfiche scanning. Most newspaper projects avoid microfiche formats but sometimes there is no other alternative, particularly with small community newspapers in Ontario. We welcome partners in exploring scanning options for these formats and would like to achieve a blueprint that would put low-cost scanners into the reach of almost any organization seeking to convert film formats to digital form.

Women’s Institutes Completes Its Digitization Project

OurDigitalWorld is very pleased to have been involved in this project, working with the Federated Women’s Institutes of Ontario for more the past 4 years, processing the materials for full text search and hosting the materials for search and discovery via the VITA Digital Toolkit.

From a Press release from Irene Robillard, Federation of Women’s Institutes of Ontario:

The Federated Women’s Institutes of Ontario completed its three-year project through the Documentary Heritage Communities Program of Library and Archives Canada on March 31st, 2020. During this time 225,000 pages have been digitized and added to our Virtual Archives, most being our Tweedsmuir Community History Collections.  These collections, with many starting in 1947, contain the history of a local community and can include farm and family histories, biographies, and photos.  

Books from as far north as Cochrane in the northeast and Kenora in the northwest, down to beyond London in southwestern Ontario, the Ottawa Valley in the east, and many books in between were brought to a central digitizing site and then returned.  Some books were found that we were not aware of, and one book was saved from destruction.

We have fostered positive relationships with archives, museums, libraries, and historical societies throughout Ontario, with a few using our Virtual Archives to put their previously-digitized Women’s Institutes (WI) documents online. As well, some WI branches and districts have self-funded digitizing.

About half of the documents have not yet been opened to the public, as they need to be reviewed for privacy concerns. This will happen over the next year or two. As well, there are many more books to be digitized [with] a waiting list for digitizing from branches, districts, and holding organizations.

The public can freely access the Virtual Archives at http://collections.fwio.on.ca/search. As well, the FWIO records as well as Women’s Institutes records from other organizations can be found through the WI portal: http://portal.fwio.on.ca.

If you have a suggestion of other resources to be added to the collection, please contact the FWIO or OurDigitalWorld at info@ourdigitalworld.org.

OurDigitalWorld Joins CRKN as Associate Member

CRKN logo

OurDigitalWorld is pleased to announce that we are joining with the Canadian Research Knowledge Network as an Associate Member in 2020. OurDigitalWorld joins CRKN as its 81st member. As a member, OurDigitalWorld will benefit from closer participation in CRKN’s heritage and digitization initiatives and the opportunity to connect with members across Canada on national strategies and approaches.

“Associate membership with CRKN will allow us to expand our network to better serve communities throughout Canada,” said Loren Fantin, Executive Director of OurDigitalWorld. “Joining CRKN also consolidates the successful working relationship our organizations have had, and I look forward to continuing our productive relationship as an Associate member.”

Loren Fantin is a member of CRKN’s Heritage Content and Priorities Task Group (HCPTG) and presented on OurDigitalWorld’s digitization strategy at the 2019 CRKN Conference. OurDigitalWorld has also been a strategic partner and collaborator with CRKN through Canadiana on digitization projects for the past decade.

“OurDigitalWorld has been an active member of our stakeholder community, and I am very pleased to welcome them to CRKN as an Associate Member,” said Clare Appavoo, Executive Director of CRKN. “Their perspective will be valuable within our membership as we collaborate on shared goals within the digital heritage field.”

See the full press release at: https://www.crkn-rcdr.ca/en/ourdigitalworld-joins-crkn-associate-member 

For more information about the CRKN Members go to: https://www.crkn-rcdr.ca/en/members

ODW is online and working with you!

The ODW virtual team is ready and able to continue to provide services via our regular channels. 

As most of you will be connecting/working/living virtually in the next while, we’ll be highlighting our online heritage resources. We’ll also be providing tips for our VITA partners on showcasing their digital collections, and continuing to work with the GLAM sector on newspaper digitization projects. Stay tuned and stay well! 

Explore online digital collections with an Ontario focus

OurOntario.ca portal
OurOntario.ca currently searches almost 2.5 million photos, documents, oral histories, paintings, postcards, and exhibits, including newspaper and book pages!
Collections from 300 heritage organizations in Ontario, including more than 200 VITA platform partners

Ontario Community Newspapers and INK
Two major gateways to hundreds of digitized Ontario newspaper titles, full text and index records, over 200 years of publishing history, ranging from Windsor to Waterloo, Thunder Bay to Petawawa!
See a full list of regions covered here

Ontario Government Documents portal
Ontario government documents (PDFs) collected by the Legislative Library, with full-text search, ability to browse by subject and ministry, and serial publications.

Search our VITA Toolkit Partners’ collections and exhibits
Explore your region and beyond: Collections from Ontario, British Columbia, Illinois, Michigan, and more, including community history, heritage and current newspapers, local history books & oral histories, on every topic from military, women’s and multicultural histories to built heritage, local sites, community contributions, and more…
See what organizations are contributing and building collections, click on their site names here

Illinois Newspapers
One place to search digitized newspapers with index records for access to dozens of Chicago-area publications from Libertyville, Wilmette, Algonquin Area and more.